We should note that we define ‘hired man’ as one who works and lives with a family for a period of time. Groups of men might be hired to get in a crop or perform some other job, but they were not part of the family, thus were not hired men as defined for these articles.

I researched these hired men by looking for names that didn’t belong in each family as listed on the censuses of 1860, 1870 and 1880. Some were the sons and daughters of neighbors. I chose not to research them because they were part of their own community, just working out for a few years. Some were strangers, single men, or women, with no known family connections to the area. I created lists of men and women that will be the core of the article. No census record exists for 1890. Next issue we’ll look at twentieth century hired men.


Maxwell Anderson, 20, was a farm laborer born in New Brunswick. He was living with Elisha Stephenson and is not listed on any subsequent records. He was probably not part of the Anderson family in Baileyville since they were all Maine born.

John Bridges, 16, was a farm laborer on Abner Townsend’s farm on the Flat Road. NFI

Levi Call, 18, was a farm laborer born in Nova Scotia. He was in the Gardner Loverin household. It is possible that Levi was a brother of Sarah Jane Call who married Albion K. P. Moore in 1853. Levi does not appear on any later area census. Gardner Loverin and his family were in Princeton by 1880.

Gordon Davis, 20, was a son of Edward and Mary (McElroy) Davis was born in Nova Scotia on July 26, 1839. He and the family moved to Alexander prior to 1850. He was a farm laborer on the farm of Abner and Harriet Townsend on the Flat Road.

Michael O. Dowd, 40, was a farm laborer born in Ireland. He was living with the Edmund Bailey family on Robb Hill Road. Edmund’s wife Sarah was also born in Ireland, eight years before Michael. Were they siblings? We will meet Michael again.

James Garryan, 28, was an Irish born common laborer living with Samuel Seamans on the South Princeton Road near the Princeton line. He left our area before 1870.

Edward Jamieson, 26, was a common laborer born in Maine. Sometime after 1860 he moved from the Billings household to the home of Rachel Taylor (daughter of Samuel Brown and widow of James Taylor). Edward married Rachel’s daughter Martha on September 27, 1860 and they are on the 1880 Princeton census with a family.

Mary Moreland, 14, was born in Maine. She was living in the Gardner Loverin household. She was not Susan (Farrar) Loverin’s sister, but likely was a daughter of Samuel Moreland of Baileyville. Samuel appears to have been widowed. Was Mary ‘bound out’? Gardiner grew up on the Robb Hill Road, and Susan on Farrar or Malloy Hill in Baileyville. Did the Moreland family live in that neighborhood? By 1860, Gardiner was living on the Arm Road.
Tom Tobin, 30, was an Irish born farm laborer living in the home of John Crowley. James Foley and 4 members of his family were also in this house plus Crowley’s wife and daughter. It was Tom’s picture given to A-CHS by Ceil Kirby that started us on this study of an important part of our history. We will meet Tom again.


Azor Bridges, 18, was born in Charlotte, Maine and a common laborer living with Robert Ford. He went off to fight in the Civil War, and came back to Crawford where in 1873 he married Mary Creamer. He was a blacksmith and lived on the Airline in the valley north of the Old Crawford Cemetery

Alice Jamieson, 18, was a domestic in the Nathaniel Bailey household. Was she a younger sister of Edward Jamieson who was a common laborer in Alexander? She married Michael Noddin in December 1860 and they both disappeared from local records.

James Jeffrey, 17, was a farm laborer and born in Scotland according to the 1860 census. He was in the Henry Fenlason household on Henry Hill. James joined the army during the War Between the States, returned to the area and married Margaret Ann Perkins in 1869. They were both of Alexander according to the marriage intentions. His second wife was Orra Bailey. James stayed in Crawford.

Anna Torrey, 20, was a Maine born domestic in Sawyer Fenlason’s home. No other reference to her, single or married, was found, except that possibly she was married to Joseph Johnson and living in Baileyville in the Winslow Berry household in 1870.

Robert Wallace, 23, was born in Nova Scotia and was a common laborer living with Henry Fenlason. Like James Jeffery and Azor Bridges, he joined the Union Army and fought in the Civil War. Unlike James and Azor, Robert married before the war, in July 1860 to Harriet Noddin. They lived in Alexander a number of years before returning to Crawford.

COOPER – 1860

Josiah McDougal, 22, was a farm laborer born in Maine. He lived with and worked for George Black. Josiah disappeared from the area after this census.

Charles Watson, 17, was another farm laborer born in Maine. He was in Jeremiah Shackford’s home. The 1870 Cooper census lists George H. Watson, 30, with wife Catherine and two children. The 1880 census has the Watson family in Mary Brisley’s home. George and Catherine had six children including a son named Charles. Also in the home is Naomi Watson, sister of Mary Brisley and mother of George. Apparently Charles Watson came to Cooper to work because his aunt lived there.


Susan Apt, 19, was born in Maine. She was housekeeping in William Spring’s household on Spring Hill (Cooper Road). A hint about Susan is found in the Carlow family. John Carlow and family appear first on the Alexander census in 1870. John’s wife was Lenora who would have been 25 in 1870. The Carlows came here from Robbinston, and likely Susan was a sister of Lenora from that same area. Susan does not show up either single or married in the 1880 census of Alexander, Cooper, Crawford, Princeton or Baileyville.

William Black, 17, was Maine born and a laborer with Robert K. Thistlewood on the McArthur Road. William may have been the son of George Black of Cooper whose daughter Carolyn married William Gillespie of Alexander in 1865. No William Black is found on subsequent records of area towns.

Michael Dowd, 50, the Irish born laborer we met in 1860, has moved down the Robb Hill Road to Joseph Loverin’s farm. Michael was not a sibling of Harriet, Joseph’s wife, for she was a Brooks born in Jonesborough, Maine. Gardner Loverin, mentioned elsewhere, was their oldest child.

John Kitchen, 22, a New Brunswick born laborer was living in William Spring’s household. No record of John is found in 1860 or 1880 records. We did find a Margaret Kitchen, 38, and four children in Princeton in 1880. She also was born in New Brunswick, but no connection can be made.

Agnes Preston, 17, was a housekeeper at Almeda Townsend’s.

Tom Tobin, 41, is still on Breakneck, but has moved north to Mahitable Little’s home. She is the widow of David.


James Hays, 20, a New Brunswick born laborer, was at Andrew Dwelley’ house.

William Vickery, 27, lived with Horatio Averill. He was a laborer born in Maine.

COOPER - 1870

William H. Huntley, 17, was born in Maine. He was in Samuel Day’s household.

Steven Young, 14, was born in Louisiana. He worked on the farm of Levi Henderson and attended school. How did he get to Maine? Was he Black? Did a Union soldier bring him North?


Michael Dowd, 60, is the only stranger in the Alexander census. Actually, Michael was no stranger to the Loverin District for he arrived there before 1860. Michael, a laborer born in Ireland, was again living in the Joseph Loverin Household. Michael died on September 4, 1887 at age 75 according to the gravestone in the Joseph Loverin lot.


Fred Archer, 25, was born in Maine. He was a common laborer in Andrew Dwelley’s house.

Thomas McLaughlin, 14, was attending school and a common laborer residing with Frank Averill. Thomas was born in Maine. Thomas likely was the son of John McLaughlin and Margaret Blaney McLaughlin of the Pokey Road in Alexander. Some descendants of John and Margaret are still in the area, but I did not find Thomas after 1880

Stillman Phinney, 22, was a Maine born common laborer in the Daniel Seavey household.

COOPER – 1880

Peter Closgow, 21, was a Maine born farm laborer in Samuel Day’s household.

Michael Curley, 56, was born in Ireland and was a farm laborer for Joseph Averill.

Sandy Gordon, was a Black Canadian born laborer in William Wade’s household, on West Ridge.

Tom Tobin, 50, has moved south on Breakneck clear into Cooper where he is a laborer on James Niles farm. Tom has become part of our community even though he owned no farm.