“The Great Depression in Alexander, Maine”

February 26, 2004

(Names and other words that could not be transcribed are in italics. Unknown voices are referred to as “man” or “woman.” Comments, explanations, and additional names are in parentheses.)

John Dudley: This works?

Amanda McDonough: Yes.

John Dudley: Are you sure?

Amanda McDonough: Yes.

John Dudley: It’s all yours.

Amanda McDonough: Where were you in - - -

(Sound like a dog panting.)

John Dudley: Who are you?

Amanda McDonough: (Indistinct words)

John Dudley: Remember what I asked you to put on that tape first? Who you are, what day it is and what you are talking about.

Amanda McDonough: I’m Amanda McDonough, February 26, 2004, The Depression.

John Dudley: And who it is you’re talking to.

Amanda McDonough: Marian Cousins.

John Dudley: And?

Amanda McDonough: What was your maiden name?

Marian Cousins: Dwelley.

Amanda McDonough: How old were you in 1929?

Marian Cousins: 18 - no - 1929 - I was born in - I don’t know how old I am.

John Dudley: Different question.

Marian Cousins: Yes.

John Dudley: What year were you born?

Marian Cousins: 1918.

John Dudley: 1918.

Marian Cousins: 1918. I was 11 years old.

John Dudley: She was 11 years old. So go on with the question - begin the questions with she was 11 and the depression lasted about 12 years so she was about 23, so that gives you the idea of the kind of person she was, the responsibilities she had during that time.

Amanda McDonough: Where did you live?

Marian Cousins: Where did I live? Right here in Alexander.

John Dudley: Where in Alexander?

Marian Cousins: Down - - -

Amanda McDonough: The Cooper Road?

John Dudley: Cooper Road? Where on the Cooper Road? What’s there today?

Marian Cousins: Well, where Hughes’s garage is.

Amanda McDonough: What was it like growing up from 1929 to 1935?

Marian Cousins: I was married then. It was kind of fun (indistinct words) - the worst of the depression, they asked us when we were younger than that. Between ‘33 and ‘35, that was (indistinct words) because I didn’t get married until ‘37 I was thinking how old I was, but oh, it was fun. There was four of us. Our father of course (indistinct words) didn’t have any money to do much of anything with but I think the first car that was in the yard was Dad’s Ford bought in ‘39, so we used to just have a horse and buggy and we did a lot of playing around with that like working of course and come home from school with it, vegetables in, go down in the woods to haul home the wood for the wintertime, have a picnic down there at noontime for the (indistinct word) and our father. And, we had socials for the church to make some money to keep the church going down there.

John Dudley: Where was the church?

Marian Cousins: The church? Right there at - just the other side of the Grange Hall.

John Dudley: All right.

Amanda McDonough: What were your clothes like?

Marian Cousins: Hum?

Amanda McDonough: What was your clothing like? Clothes?

John Dudley: Clothes. Clothing.

Marian Cousins: Oh, clothing. Well, I guess perhaps I had a little more than (indistinct words) but we had an outfit for school and an outfit for coming home and getting in it for playing and doing chores while Mama washed the other one to go back to school with the next morning.

John Dudley: So, you had two outfits?

Marian Cousins: Um hum.

John Dudley: That makes it easy, doesn’t it. You knew what you’re going to wear to school.

Marian Cousins: Well, just about. Of course I had some older half sisters that used to - (indistinct words) boys pretty much. They had their pair of overalls when they got home - with the bibs on it to do the chores, but usually had a pair of pants and Mama sewed. She made them shirts that - for school.

John Dudley: What was your dress like - pair of slacks?

Marian Cousins: No. No. A skirt and in the wintertime, of course a skirt and a blouse and a sweater. And, the boys had sweaters. They used to have (indistinct words) they’d go down - go home at noontime. Of course they’d have to go down and water the cows and give them - they usually gave them their turnips at noontime, too. They’d put those turnips through the root cutter there and grind - cut them up and the boys would come back to school with those big sweaters - heavy knit sweaters. They’d be turned up here and loaded with turnip to throw at the kids at school. Do you do that? (chuckle) Well, that’s all the recreation we had. We - always at school - of course, we had - at Christmas time we had a pageant and we usually had it at the Grange Hall and a Christmas tree and we’d string pop corn to put on there.

John Dudley: Did the parents come to the pageant?

Marian Cousins: Oh, yes. Our mom did anyway. Dad (indistinct words) Linny, anyway, was always there (indistinct words) same as at church. Of course we had dances after - I think I was 12 years old. My sisters started me dancing when I couldn’t walk. They had me on the toes of their shoes. (indistinct words) Then I think I was 12 the first time Dad let me go up to the Grange Hall to dance with them, but we always went up there every dance after that. We didn’t want for activities. The kids all got together in the neighborhood. We’d slide down over the Blaine Hill over there - over by the school house and then - Dad would be scared that we’d be (indistinct words) with the snow blowing and he put a lamp across the field in the window and we’d get home and he’d have that put up on things in the sink - on dishes and things so that it would shine out. Dad was afraid we’d get lost and freeze to death. Dad was 45 when I was born so he was kind of a worry-wart.

John Dudley: He was a grandfather-age for you.

Marian Cousins: Yes, he was. I was the family (indistinct word).

John Dudley: Marian had four older sisters and then - - -

Marian Cousins: Three older sisters and an older brother.

John Dudley: Older brother, and then three (indistinct word) older brothers so there were a lot - a lot of children older in the family but - - -

Marian Cousins: Then Mom got my sister’s son after they died and we brought him up so he was a younger brother but we always figured that and he was five years younger than I am. We always - Mama - when Mama got married, she got up the next morning and got breakfast for eight people and I don’t know whether she ever got it for less til I got around so I could help with it because I was working some then. What else shall we do here?

John Dudley: Well, we’re pressed for time, but Amanda has to ask another question and when we kind of get bogged down on one question she’ll throw another one at you.

Marian Cousins: Um - hum.

Amanda McDonough: What was your food like?

Marian Cousins: Food?

Amanda McDonough: Yes.

Marian Cousins: All right - we had - Dad use to have cattle and always raised his own beef and we - then in - he’d kill one in the fall of the year and he saved the meat and I would brown it on top of the stove and then let it - put it in a jar (indistinct words) you know, put some water on that brown gravy - brown gravy there and then pour it in and boil those off to seal them. For all - all winter long we’d have meat. She’d go down and take it out of the jar and cook it in that gravy. We’d have that and Mama - they always had hams and we had all the eggs we needed and all kinds of vegetables. They raised them also. We never wanted for something to eat. There was always a lot to eat. I don’t think we realized that we were shy for sweet food like - like frosted cakes and all because when Mama frosted a cake after things began to loosen up a little bit and my younger brother there said “Who’s birthday is it, Mama?” He thought it must be someone’s birthday and we were going to have cake. But, Dad used to take his produce to town. He sold them all, I guess, and he’d take it to town and then - take it to the stores - he’d sell it for - like you’d get - when sugar was available. There was times when it wasn’t. Well, there they got - he tried to get a hundred pound bag of sugar. He had been (indistinct words) used molasses. He’d get a barrel of flour. I was thinking today, he bought burster-snaps for us kids. That’s what we used to call them. We used to grab a handful of them and go out to play and take a handful for the neighbors that used to play with us - of those - a whole bag - those little oyster crackers.

John Dudley: Um hum. Do you know what an oyster cracker is? Seen them in restaurants? They’re about the size of the top of my thumb. Probably if you’ve had soup or a chowder in a restaurant, you probably remember some of those. In a barrell?

Marian Cousins: In a barrel. They weren’t - they weren’t in packages inside that barrel either. We’d just grab a handful there. Then, of course we had a lot of apples. Dad had a lot of apple trees. We had apples all winter. And, then there was a lot of turnips and he could get (indistinct words) even if we weren’t getting ready to go to town the next day. We’d go down and get a turnip - we’d play Old Maids or something at the table there and we’d sit - cut a turnip in two and then one would have one half and one the other and we’d take a spoon and scrape that out and eat that turnip. Then he used to raise our own pop corn. We’d have pop corn. It was nice. We had a good childhood.

John Dudley: Have you ever eaten turnip?

Amanda McDonough: Cooked.

John Dudley: Cooked. Have you ever eaten it raw?

Amanda McDonough: No.

John Dudley: (indistinct words) at Halloween made out of pumpkins - over there - pumpkins are North American so there they made them out of turnips.

Marian Cousins: Then, the Irish - Don and Mary used to come up here from (indistinct word) they made (indistinct words) said they used that for the horses over there.

John Dudley: Well, you just said that turnip was fed to the cows, too.

Marian Cousins: Um hum. And, the reason that we fed it to them at noon time was to keep it a little further away from their milking time because it tasted the milk sometimes.

John Dudley: Yes.

Marian Cousins: And, in the summertime when they’d be out in the field, I can remember Mama didn’t like the looks of it. When they’d eat buttercups, the milk would be - the butter would be very yellow. Any little thing used to change the flavor of the milk. I don’t know how Mama knew because she - we didn’t know it until we were all grown up, but she wouldn’t take a taste of the milk - not a bit. Nor tomatoes - she didn’t - didn’t like the fresh ones.

Amanda McDonough: Did you have any toys?

Marian Cousins: Any toys? Did we? Well, I used to - I had a doll usually because my middle sisters by that time had gone to work. They were working in Woodland in the woolen mill. But, I didn’t like - care about the doll. I wanted something heavy and I used to carry around a stick of wood from the woodshed all wrapped up in a blanket. That was my baby. And, I used to - we had flints cards and Mama would sit down and teach us how to do shuffling and things like that and sometimes she’d play with us but if we had an argument then to the - over the card business, Dad would go right along - he’d speak to us once. If we didn’t straighten out he’d take that pack of cards and off right over to the wood stove and throw them in and we didn’t get any more until he decided that we could mind our business.

John Dudley: Pretty - pretty final punishment there, isn’t it.

Marian Cousins: Oh, he took no (indistinct words) And, then I had a doll carriage and a cradle for my doll. I can’t remember (indistinct words) I had sleds and skis.

Amanda McDonough: (indistinct words)

John Dudley: Did you have skates?

Marian Cousins: There were skates down there. I don’t know who - I never went skating ‘til after I got down (indistinct words). We didn’t go down for skating.

John Dudley: You mean down to the lake?

Marian Cousins: Um hum. We’d go down and skate on our rubbers and our - perhaps in the field. Not too bad if you have something to slide on our feet. We didn’t go skating. We didn’t go - and the boys after - I don’t know, they must have been - they used to go down to Uncle Em’s and go swimming down there with the boys. But (indistinct words) I was about the age they did - I was there but I didn’t - I never learned to swim. (indistinct words)

John Dudley: We were talking - when she said down to Uncle Em’s, she was talking about the present day because her grandfather lived where Joe and Jane Hanson live now. That log house toward the lake - up beside the road.

Marian Cousins: (indistinct words) that was on the home place and then Grandpa’s house (indistinct words)

John Dudley: I hear that - that woman on the television I see once in a while - asks hard questions - Katie Couric, I think her name is - (cat meowing and bird chirping) - (indistinct words) A cat could hear that. (indistinct words)

Marian Cousins: I’m surprised she’s not on the table. She’s sure around here somewhere. That’s my three brothers. (indistinct words) That’s what was down where - the - down where the turkey business is now. That’s where I was born, down there. And, the other one is down to Carleton Davis’ (indistinct words)

John Dudley: Carleton Davis was Jane Manza’s - - -

Marian Cousins: Mother and father. (indistinct words)

John Dudley: I expect Amanda is going to remember all these relationships.

Amanda McDonough: Maybe.

Marian Cousins: Yes, you better. (indistinct words) Let me see if I can remember. I’ve got a picture of my brother and sister playing house under the wheelbarrow. (indistinct words)

John Dudley: That’s all right.

Marian Cousins: I don’t have it.

John Dudley: (indistinct words) We’ll have Amanda ask you a question.

Marian Cousins: All right.

Amanda McDonough: What did your parents do?

Marian Cousins: My parents? Dad was a farmer and my mother was a housekeeper.

John Dudley: That’s not a housekeeper out is somebody else’s house.

Marian Cousins: Oh, no. She kept at home. My mother, before she married my father, was a school teacher. My father was always a farmer.

John Dudley: That was - some things that Amanda may not realize is that school teachers - many of the school teachers (indistinct words) had to be single. Once they got married then they were not allowed to teach. Some widow school teachers were allowed to teach. And, in some cases, like, for instance, my mother, Florence, she taught after she was married but I expect they couldn’t find somebody else that wasn’t married so - that’s kind of unusual. If you look at Alexander Elementary School today almost all the teachers are married, aren’t they. So, your dad was a farmer. You told us he grew turnips and raised cattle.

Marian Cousins: Chickens, apples, (indistinct words). He raised all kinds of vegetables. And of course, (indistinct words) with 160 acres there and down in the field way back there was a small - probably an acre and a half of blueberries. Mama used to walk down there and pick the berries, bring them back and make jam. We always had our own jams and jellies and then she had currents down there and then Dad would - after they killed the beef, Dad - Mother would take the rest of the flank and bones there in the big soup kettle and put them through the grinder and make mince meat and make mince meat pies and we had pumpkins. We didn’t use the pumpkins for pies. We didn’t raise that many pumpkins. It was always squash.

John Dudley: The question was what did your parents do. That of course implies how did they earn a living and going throughout the (indistinct words) taking care of the cash needs.

Marian Cousins: (indistinct words) He took a - like if he had (indistinct words) to the hospital, Dad would take the butter. He made 100 pounds of butter per week. He’d take butter and load it and vegetables and then apples - he’d take (indistinct words) he took apples in to the hospital and then like that and then he’d take the rest of them to the stores around there and sell them and then bring back what he needed in - in groceries. And, if there was some left over - I’d generally help him. He’d come home - he’d be loaded down - Dad was (indistinct words) and if he had a few cents left, he did well. (indistinct words) somehow.

John Dudley: So, do you remember him going to town with a horse and wagon?

Marian Cousins: Oh gosh, yes. Horse and sled in the wintertime.

John Dudley: Horse and sled in the wintertime.

Marian Cousins: (indistinct words) sitting on that buffalo rug, yes. And he had (indistinct words) put on his brakes to keep - when he had to get off and warm his hands and walk around the side of the sled because it was so cold. Sometimes somebody else had to go with him. Mama went once. She had a bad toothache. He’d put a lantern down under there to keep it- make it warmer.

John Dudley: Did - did he use a -a line horse, or a team?

Marian Cousins: Well, we had both. He used one usually for going to town. (indistinct words)

John Dudley: And after he got the car in ‘31, did he start using that to go to town?

Marian Cousins: No. Paul had a truck and we used to use that, and I - the car (indistinct words) I was 16 - 15, I guess, when I started driving. We first got it when (indistinct words)

John Dudley: Bill Roach, Charles’ parents?

Marian Cousins: Bill and Doris? (indistinct words) And, I took in the apples the first week. But anyway, they - I used to take Dad to town for 15 years (indistinct words) He used to sell hens and (indistinct words) Well anyway, that’s how he made the living. He - he must have - well, he had five (indistinct words) he must have done pretty good. I know what they did, too. They cut wood and sold it.

John Dudley: Did they - they used horses to get the wood?

Marian Cousins: Um hum.

John Dudley: And the wood was sold as what?

Marian Cousins: Stove wood. He’d take it to different ones in Calais, I remember. Floyd Frost had a truck before Paul did and he hired it and some went to Dad.

John Dudley: In those days, almost all the houses in Calais were heated by wood. Some by coal, but most by wood.

Marian Cousins: Um hum.

John Dudley: (Indistinct name) was telling me about the chimney fires she had when she was working with (indistinct name) in there (indistinct words) and she grew up with a wood stove, Marian did, so she was familiar with stoves and probably with chimney fires.

Marian Cousins: Yes. This year this chimney burned out several times. (indistinct words) because of soot (indistinct words). But, I don’t remember any in our house. Some houses did. And, they - stoves there - but that’s another thing. And then, of course when we did a veal, Dad would sell veal and Johnny Stuart (indistinct words) and then after a while - I remember when I was driving him (indistinct words) They - everybody was crying for his butter and then of course when we’d get the bill paid, (indistinct words)we’d have a lot of stuff. We all hollered for that, too, to leave us some butter. Mama made the best butter I’ve ever - I took it in my - Dad was in the hospital down in Boston (indistinct words) I made butter. (indistinct words)

John Dudley: When your father killed a steer or a veal, what happened to the hide?

Marian Cousins: He sold it.

John Dudley: He sold it.

Marian Cousins: Um hum.

John Dudley: (indistinct words)

Marian Cousins: Well, Dad would take it down. He usually split it down the middle and took a side for Johnny and a side for (indistinct words)

John Dudley: A side for John Stuart and a side for Leon (indistinct name) had stores. One store was in Milltown and the other one was down in Calais.

Marian Cousins: It was on the corner of (indistinct words)

John Dudley: (indistinct words) And the hide was sold to Johnny Stuart?

Marian Cousins: Yes, Johnny usually took the hide, yes.

John Dudley: Didn’t waste much.

Marian Cousins: Nothing.

John Dudley: But the bones, you did use them for making soap.

Marian Cousins: Mama made some soap. I don’t remember that she used the bones. I can remember her using lard.

John Dudley: And ashes.

Marian Cousins: Um hum. (indistinct words) for the lye probably. (indistinct words) The head - they never would have made hogs head cheese with it. And, Mrs. Cousins and different ones around, they ate it all the time.

John Dudley: So that went to a neighbor.

Marian Cousins: Hogs head cheese. I made some (indistinct words) We didn’t waste anything, that’s for sure. Orris took the dish - of course that’s another thing we had after Orris got around there. The boys hunted and we did the deer meat just the same as we did the beef that Mama had been putting up. We had - (indistinct words) Then after the depression (indistinct words) Orris bought a (indistinct words) but he tanned his own deer skins - this one isn’t (indistinct words) - and he’d make up - he’d dye - took sections of it and he took that - he moved (indistinct words) and dyed it the way he wanted it and then he’d take a sharp knife (indistinct words) keep going around it and he’d come out of there with a big ball of raw hide from the hide. We improvised most everything (indistinct word). We didn’t have (indistinct words) When I was 12 years old I had a new coat. I didn’t want one - I mean I - when you’re brought up like that, you know what there were, what you can have, you don’t let yourself want something. We never went looking like rag-a-muffins. But, what - of course the boys used to wear out old farm overalls. Sometimes they’d have patches on patches, before they couldn’t be repaired but it - they were clean. (indistinct words) What else you got?

John Dudley: Any other questions?

Amanda McDonough: No.

John Dudley: You didn’t ask her if her favorite radio at the dances. How they got the music at the dances?

Marian Cousins: Well, they had an orchestra.

John Dudley: Was it rock and roll music?

Marian Cousins: Ballads from musicals

John Dudley: Ballads from musicals. Now they play some other.

Marian Cousins: I don’t know if you remember, I sat down (indistinct words) and just got it started (indistinct words) she don’t think much of my playing. But, my father (indistinct words) my aunt would play the piano and I don’t - which one played the violin and then Hubert and Oliver. They were all musical in that family. And then - and Aunt Bess, their mother - she was (indistinct words)

John Dudley: She was (indistinct words). Her Aunt Bess was (indistinct words).

Marian Cousins: I think so. She was (indistinct words)

John Dudley: Check this out.

Marian Cousins: A specialist. I’m not sure. I know that it came in there somewhere, but check it out anyway and see if I’m right. (indistinct words) but - then Doris played the piano and Frank played the drums, Irene played the violin and Harold had a banjo. They used to have get-togethers. A million and one times (indistinct words) then after a while Biscuit Dillon used to come up there, too, when I got older.

John Dudley: Did Ty Bost play the piano when Biscuits did?

Marian Cousins: I don’t know. I didn’t know any of them.

John Dudley: You said that at some schools the boys would go home at noon to water the cattle and feed them turnips. Where was your father at that time?

Marian Cousins: Dad was always there but the boys did all the chores. Dad didn’t do them.

John Dudley: So, he raised them to do chores.

Marian Cousins: We always did them from the time we were little. I didn’t - I’d rather be out there with my brothers - - -


Marian Cousins: - - - (indistinct words) if there was work to do, the girls did it. We’d go out and work in the garden and work in the hayfield and everybody helped everybody else get their hay cut. We had two big hay mows in the barn down there and that was solid full with cows and everything.

John Dudley: Did you - did you spend a lot of time talking on the telephone?

Marian Cousins: Not much, but my father (indistinct words) I don’t know if Mama was - if he still had it when Mama got there or not, but if he wanted - wanted to call, he’d pick up the phone and they’d be discussing something they were going to have for dinner and (indistinct words) Dad’d go back about the third time, and then unless he absolutely had to have it for something, why, he never said anything, but - Dorie to come take that thing out because he didn’t need to know what was going on in the neighborhood for meal time. So, we didn’t have any. But Liston and Callie Brown had one and if it was an emergency call or something, Callie or Hazel and them up there, they’d come down and get us.

John Dudley: During the depression, you used to - did you have electricity?

Marian Cousins: No, no.

John Dudley: But, you had a radio?

Marian Cousins: And then after Vivian died - she died in ‘31 - ‘31, I think (indistinct words) anyway, she - after she died - she had been the host-mother at the school in (indistinct name) for the kids there and (indistinct words) met at work there, she and he - I think they probalby were half the way getting married. But, anyway when she died Lester was five years old - seven years old - and he (indistinct words) and we still didn’t have electricity. And - but, we had that battery radio and Dad (indistinct words) used to put it on for Walter Cronkite.

John Dudley: The news.

Marian Cousins: Yes. Dad liked him. And then - and he - that’s how it went. But, Mama didn’t (indistinct words) He - his people - and he had business in - is Hallowell next to Augusta?

John Dudley: It’s in the area, yes.

Marian Cousins: And, he - they had a big poultry business and every spring he’d send a great big box of chickens. Day old chickens.

John Dudley: Day old chicks? Have you seen those?

Marian Cousins: (indistinct words)

Amanda McDonough: (indistinct words)

Marian Cousins: (Indistinct words) He’d go out there in that shed (indistinct words) nice and warm (indistinct words) and he’d sit there and go to sleep. And, we’d get scared and the boys would run out and he’d be there with those chickens and they’d be chirping and then all of a sudden they’d get tired and go to bed. (indistinct words) Mama would keep some for eggs and then she’d kill the rest of them and can them.

John Dudley: (indistinct words)

Marian Cousins: (indistinct words) They always sent pullets. And, he did that right up until he died. (indistinct words) But, that was the only radio we had. No television. (indistinct words)

John Dudley: Now, after you got married - this is - this is something that you may or may not feel good about (indistinct words) give you a picture of what life was like then. After you got married, where did you go to live?

Marian Cousins: Right down to his house.

John Dudley: With his - - -

Marian Cousins: With his mother and father.

John Dudley: Oh, ok. With the parents. (indistinct words)

Marian Cousins: We were there, but our feelings - his folks down there and he lived with them.

John Dudley: Yes, down (indistinct words) Now, what year did you go over on Sixteenth Stream where you and Orris and, I think, Paul - Orris and Paul were cutting wood.

Marian Cousins: Six? Oh, yes. I don’t remember. It must have been when they were getting out white birch. It had to be for (indistinct name) mill. It had to be right about that time. Oh, now wait a minute. Usually when (indistinct words) slipped across my mind again. That was the fall after we were married because we got married in September and went right into the woods - in a tent, and we were there ‘til Christmas time. And, my brother slept in the sink - in a dry sink that Dave and Lewis Frost (indistinct words) I guess that’s where it came from. Anyway, it was a big dry sink and they put boughs in it and made him a bed and our - ours was - his was made out of boughs (indistinct words) we had a little sheet iron cooking stove in there or a little sheet iron heater, and I would get that going and make tea and boil potatoes on it and I - one noontime it wasn’t working and I was looking for the boys home - gosh that was about three o’clock in the afternoon, I guess, that Paul came home. He hadn’t been home (indistinct words) and he looked up and seen the tent was on fire. It wasn’t the tent, it was a tarp. We had a big tarp pulled out over the tent and had a wash stand and things outside there and Paul came running and (indistinct words) and grabbed his hat off and said, (indistinct words) But, I had - the stove wasn’t working right and I couldn’t get the water boiling and I wanted it boiling because I knew they’d be coming in to have supper and I went out because they had a - I’d been putting birch bark in the stove to get it going (indistinct words) the top off of that thing - that they had screening and stove piping up there and I guess you know a piece of that came down all afire (indistinct words) That was what was burning (indistinct words) Paul got it out. But we stayed there until Christmas time and I did the cooking other than Mama would make us a sweet thing and when they come up hunting. (indistinct words)

John Dudley: The place where - where they put the horse, was that a hovel?

Marian Cousins: Yes.

John Dudley: Ok.

Marian Cousins: Yes. Ours had (indistinct words)

John Dudley: And, were they using chain saws?

Marian Cousins: No, I don’t think so.

John Dudley: How did they cut the tree?

Marian Cousins: (indistinct words) a crosscut.

John Dudley: An ax and a crosscut. They’d cut into it and then they’d have - they’d twitch it out.

Marian Cousins: Um hum.

John Dudley: And cut it up.

Marian Cousins: Um hum. Fifteen or a foot.

John Dudley: Thirteen, sixteen, whatever, and then somebody would come with a sled.

Marian Cousins: Clarence Lord - they had a - I don’t know. I don’t remember that the tractor was down there, but they used to haul it with ski bars on a tractor coming from there on a sledge and put them up in Thomas Blaney’s field and I don’t know how they got that down there. I know that we had deer meat hanging there. That’s what we had for our meat (indistinct words) I made - cooked potatoes and had vegetables and then (indistinct words) The boys would make a fire outside (indistinct words) around suppertime build a fire - dig a hole and build a fire in there and I’d get the beans ready and we’d have bean hole beans the next day. Bury those right in the ground and they’d - they’d cook just right in there. (indistinct words) make sure there was no steam, you know, escaping. So I thought one day I’d burn it out while they were gone and I worked like a trooper all day and when they got home I had about that many coals. I’d been picking up soft wood.

John Dudley: Soft wood doesn’t make coals.

Marian Cousins: No.

John Dudley: Amanda, I bet you don’t have any questions.

Amanda McDonough: No.

John Dudley: Would you shut that thing off.